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JOURNAL 194

William Fairbairn in Ireland: Part 2 – from circa 1850

William Pole, Fairbairn’s 1877 eulogistic biographer, states that Fairbairn built over 600 locomotives.[1] So far, of the 488 that have been identified, 72 were sent to Ireland. Fairbairns never had a top locomotive engineer, such as John Haswell whom Fairbairn sent to construct a locomotive works in Vienna and who settled there, pursuing an outstanding career,[2] or Manchester engineer C F Beyer who, after some years at Sharp Roberts, joined Richard Peacock,[3] or Archibald Sturrock who worked for Fairbairn as a journeyman for a time and became Locomotive Engineer for the Great Northern Railway.[4] This lack may explain the facts that Fairbairns more often than not tendered for locomotives designed by railway company engineers and, where they did design, they were, as Ahrons notes, ‘distinctly copyists’, taking ‘for their models the designs of Bury, Sharp, and other makers, though the details were, of course modified to some extent’. Yet, writing in 1920, Ahrons was able to say that ‘from about 1845 until … 1862, when their last locomotive was built, Messrs W Fairbairn and Sons were amongst the best-known locomotive builders in the country … the workmanship of their millwrights, men of the old school, who could turn their hands to any sort of engineering work, was excellent, and there is still a number of their locomotives doing useful work on British railways’.[5] Fairbairn’s known work in Ireland from circa 1850 is summarised in Table 3, Part 2.   

 

                              Fig.4:  C A Du Val, William Fairbairn, (mid 1860s).[6]

Table 3, Part 2: Fairbairn’s Work in Ireland from c.1850

Date

 

WF

Age

 

Client & Location

Work

Existing

 

Main References

1850-51

 

61+

Belfast & County Down Railway.

 

Two  2-2-2WT locomotives.

No

E M Patterson, The Belfast and County Down Railway, (1982 ed.), p18.

c.1850-

61

Newry, Warrenpoint & Rostrevor Railway.

One  2-2-2WT loco.

No

The Illustrated London News, 9 August 1851, 195; E M Patterson, The Great Northern Railway of Ireland, (1962), Table VIII.

1851

 

62

Midland Great Western Railway, Dublin

Three 2-2-2WT locomotives.

No

Shepherd, The Midland Great Western Railway, pp.82-3.

1851

 

62

Dublin.

Tubular-girder Bridge over River Dodder.

No

O J Vignoles, Life of Charles Blacker Vignoles, (1889), pp.186-7; Mulligan, Dargan, pp.257-8.

1852

 

63

Jamison Distillery,

Midleton.

Waterwheel.

(may not be by Fairbairn)

Yes

Industrial Heritage Association of Ireland Newsletter, 31 May 2008, 3; Cox and Gould, Civil Engineering Heitage, p.275.

1852-4

 

63+

Midland Great Western Railway, Dublin

Four  2-4-0 locomotives

No

Shepherd, The Midland Great Western Railway, pp.83, 129, 131.

 

63+

Waterford, Limerick & Western Railway..

Seven  2-4-0 locomotives

No

[W] E Shepherd, The Waterford  Limerick & Western Railway, (2006), pp.13-5; C E J Fryer, The Waterford & Limerick Railway, (2000), pp.29, 118.

1853

 

64

Dublin Exhibition.

 Steam engine.

 

No

J Sproule (ed.), The Irish Industrial Exhibition of 1853: A Detailled Catalogue of its Contents, (1854), p.36; The Civil Engineer and Architect’s Journal, 16, 1853,270; The Illustrated London News, 22,1853,390; Mulligan, Dargan, p.133.

1853

 

64

Dublin Exhibition.

Report on Building.

No

Manchester Guardian, 11 August 1852; W Fairbairn, On the Application of Cast and Wrought Iron to Building Purposes, (2nd ed. 1857-8), pp.119-22;  Sproule, Irish Industrial Exhibition, pp.31-2.

1853

 

64

Dublin Exhibition.

Fairbairn Crane

No

Sproule, Irish Industrial Exhibition, p.178..

1853

 

64

Waterford & Tramore Railway.

Three  s/h

2-2-2T  locos for W Dargan.

No

H Fayle and A T Newham, The Waterford & Tramore Railway, (2nd ed. 1972), pp.21-2, 26; H Jack, Locomotives of the LNWR Southern Division, (2001), pp.99-100.

1853-54

 

64

Dublin & Wicklow Railway.

Three  locomotives

No

W E Shepherd and G Beesley, The Dublin & South Eastern Railway: An Illustrated History, (1998), pp.14, 83, 141, 143; J W P Rowledge, Irish Steam Locomotive Register, (1993), p.87;

1854-5

 

65

Waterford & Tramore Railway.

Three locomotives

No

Fayle and Newham, Waterford & Tramore, pp.22-6, 44-5, 53, Plate 18.

1855

 

66

Ballymena, Ballymoney, Coleraine & Portrush Junction Railway.

Three  2-2-2WT locomotives.

No

T King, ‘Fairbairn Works List’ (Typescript  WL10308 held by Stephenson Locomotive Society).

1855

 

66

Wm Dargan ,

Belfast

One locomotive.

No

Shepherd, Waterford  Limerick & Western Railway, pp.102, 150.

1855

 

66

Londonderry & Coleraine Railway.

One 0-6-0 locomotive.

No

M Page, ‘’Fairbairn Works List’ (Typescript WL8733/18 held by Stephenson Locomotive Society).

1855

 

66

Waterford & Kilkenny Railway.

One 2-4-0 locomotive.

No

Shepherd, Waterford  Limerick & Western Railway, pp.102, 150, 152.

1855

 

66

Dublin & Wicklow Railway.

Two 

2-2-2WT  locomotives.

No

Shepherd and  Beesley,  Dublin & South Eastern Railway, pp.75, 83, 141, 143; The Times 6 December 1872.

1855

 

66

Great Southern & Western Railway, Dublin.

Two  2-4-0  locomotives.

No

J Davies, Queensland, ‘Fairbairn Works List’, (Typescript).

1855

 

66

Dublin & Drogheds Railway.

One 2-4-0 goods engine.

No

King, ‘Works List’; Page, ‘Works List’; N Johnston, Locomotives of the GNRI, (1999), pp.16,  22, 196.

1856 or before

 

Limerick & Ennis Railway,  Limerick

One 0-4-2 locomotive,

via Dargan.

No

Davies, ‘Works List’; Shepherd, Waterford  Limerick & Western Railway, pp.102, 150.

1856

 

67

Great Southern & Western Railway, Dublin

 

One 0-4-2 locomotive.

No

Davies, ‘Works List’.

c.1856,

&  later.

 

Wm Dargan,

Flax & Thread Mill,

Chapelizod, Dublin

Two steam engines and millwork.

?

Mulligan, Dargan. p.185; Manchester Guardian, 25 June 1867.

c.1857

 

Belleek Pottery.

Belleek.

Waterwheel.

 

No, but axle remains on site.

C Marvell, ‘The Dublin and Worcester Connection: William Henry Kerr, William Dargan and the Development of the Belleek pottery’, UK Collectors’ Group Newsletter, 26/3, 2005, 26-37; 27/1, 2006, 34-44; 27/2, 2006, 24-35;

S Stajda, ‘Belleek’ at http://www.oldandsold.com/articles/article449.shtml  .

1859

 

70

Ulster Railway,

Belfast

One 2-2-2 locomotive.

No

Johnston, Locomotives of the GNRI, pp.40-1, 47, 51, 196.

1859

 

70

Belfast & County Down Railway.

Two 0-4-2 goods engines.

No

E M Patterson, The Belfast & County Down Railway, (1982), p.18; King, ‘Works List’.

1859

 

70

 

Limerick & Ennis Railway.

One 0-4-2 locomotive.

No

Davies, ‘Works List’; Shepherd, Waterford  Limerick & Western Railway, p.102.

1859

 

70

 

Newry & Armagh Railway.

One locomotive.

No

Johnston, Locomotives of the GNRI, pp.55-6.

c.1860

 

 

Milford Flour Mills,

Carlow.

Millwork and machinery.

Building remains in part, +weir. See above.

Carlow Post, 11 November 1862; Carloviana: Journal of the Old Carlow Society, 1993-4, p.12.

1860

 

71

 

Dublin & Wicklow Railway.

Three 2-4-0 passenger locomotives.

No

Shepherd and Beesley, The Dublin & South Eastern Railway, pp.83, 141-3.

1860

 

71

 

Midland Great Western Railway, Dublin

Six 0-4-2 tender engines.

No

[W] E Shepherd, The Midland Great Western Railway of Ireland: An Illustrated History, (1994), pp.84, 123, 131.

1861

 

72

Londonderry & Coleraine Railway.

One 2-4-0 locomotive.

No

Davies, ‘Works list’.

1862

 

73

Bewley Moss Sugar Refinery, Dublin.

Warehouse.

Yes

W Fairbairn, On the Application of Cast and Wrought Iron to Building Purposes, (3rd ed.1864), pp.166-8; A Darbyshire, An Architect’s Experiences, (1897), pp.65-8; S Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture, (3rd ed.1953), p.192.

1862

 

73

Cork & Brandon Railway.

One 0-4-0ST engine.

No

[W] E Shepherd, Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway, (2005), pp.102, 148-9; Davies, ‘Works List’; J W Lowe, British Steam Locomotive Builders, (1975), p.115.

1862

 

73

Ulster Railway, Belfast

Two 2-2-2 tender locomotives.

No

Johnston, Locomotives of the GNRI, pp.41, 47.

1863

 

74

Newry & Armagh Railway.

One 2-4-0T and two 0-4-2 locos.

No

Davies, ‘Works List’;  Lowe, Locomotive Builders, p.168.

1865

76

Atlantic Cable, Valencia.

Various tests.

-

‘Report of the Joint Committee to inquire into the Construction of Submarine Telegraph Cables’, Parliamentary Papers, 1860[2744], p.xxxvi; W Fairbairn, Useful Information for Engineers, Third Series, (1866), pp.244-88, 317-22; W H Russell, The Atlantic Cable, (1865), pp.42-3.

 

Fairbairns’ first order from Ireland for locomotives was for ten 2-2-2s with 14in cylinders for the Midland Great Western Railway in 1846-7 to the specification – probably only in outline - of the company’s Engineer, George Hemans. The order was reduced to six, but was followed by an order for a further six from the company’s new engineer, John Dewrance, probably singles to a design based on his ‘Bird’ Class of 1841 for the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. These were more successful, working for twenty-five years, compared with the nine years of the earlier batch.[7] 

 

 

 

Tables 4: Midland Great Western Railway locomotives designed by J Dewrance

No

Name[8]

Delivered

Renumbered

Withdrawn

12

Heron

1848

 

1873

13

Condor

1848

 

1873

14

Petrel

1848

86

1875

14

Pelican

1848

 

1873

16

Cygnet

1848

 

1873

17

Ouzel (later Snipe)

1848

87

1875

 

In April 1850 the Whig Prime Minister, John Russell, visited the Fairbairn works. There were 14 or 15 locomotives in different stages of construction. The Manchester Guardian reported:

His lordship’s attention was particularly drawn to some small engines of a perfectly new construction, called ‘the tank engine’. The use of the tender will be altogether dispensed with, the ‘tank’ being contained in the engine itself, so as to get rid of a great amount of dead weight. These engines are much smaller than the usual locomotive, and are intended to work light trains, on lines on which the traffic is not great. Several were in course of construction for some of the Irish railways, as well as for the North-Western line. It is expected that, in working a given amount of traffic, a saving of nearly one-half the cost of fuel will be effected. [9] 

              

      Fig. 5: Fairbairn Tank Locomotive as exhibited at the Great Exhibition, 1851.[10]

Pole believed that Fairbairn was the first designer of the ‘tank’ engine,[11] but this appears to be incorrect. The first Fairbairn tanks went to the ‘Little’ North Western Railway for which C B Vignoles was Engineer, and is said to have ‘drafted the specification’.[12] Vignoles had previously been Engineer for the Dublin & Kingston Railway on which it is believed there were locomotives supplied by George Forrester & Co in 1834 which were converted into tank engines between 1837 and 1840.[13] Thus this may be a case of Fairbairn developing and marketing a product which existed but was largely unknown and unexploited. If so, he did it very successfully. A Fairbairn tank engine was exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Its technical details are below. At the end of a description of it the Illustrated London News added, ‘Similar engines are at work on the railway from Lancaster to Skipton, and on the Belfast & County Down, and Newry and Warrenpoint lines’.[14] Three more followed for the Midland Great Western Railway.[15]

     Table 5: Technical details of the Fairbairn tank engine at the Great Exhibition [16]

Cylinders

10” x 15”

Driving wheels

5’0” diam.

Leading wheels

3’6” diam.

Trailing wheels

3’6” diam.

Boiler

3’0” x 8’0”

Tubes (brass)

88 x 2” ext. diam.

Inside fire-box (copper)

2’5” long x 3’0” broad x 3’5” deep

Total heating surface

480ft2

Water tank (under footplate)

400 gallons

Consumption of coke

10lbs per mile

Weight in working trim

14 tons

 

 

 

In 1853 William Dargan purchased three second-hand locomotives from Fairbairn to assist in the construction and early operation of the Waterford & Tramore Railway – unusual in that there were no intermediate stations and the line was unconnected to any other railway. These engines had come from the London & North Western Railway as part payments.[17] In 1854-5 they were replaced by two new Fairbairn tanks. No.1 arrived in April 1855. The boiler was re-tubed in 1859 and a new boiler was fitted c.1865. The engine was rebuilt in 1895 with a larger boiler and cab. A backsheet was added c.1907.[18] It received a new Avonside boiler in 1924. On 23 August 1935 this engine (now No.483) was hauling the 12.15pm from Waterford when it derailed, dragging the coaches down an embankment. There were injuries but no fatalities, other than the engine which was extensively damaged, and sadly scrapped. It was the last working Fairbairn engine and probably the last ‘single’ to run on a scheduled service – an 80-year working life![19]

                         

 

Fig.6: An 1855 Fairbairn Tank Engine - Waterford and Tramore Railway, as rebuilt 1865.[20]

 

Construction of the Waterford, Limerick & Western Railway commenced in 1845 with Vignoles as Engineer, followed by Hemans in 1850. Dargan was Contractor for much of the work. The Malcolmson family, with whom Fairbairn had worked at Portlaw Cotton Mill in the 1820s, was involved.[21] Seven 2-4-0s were sent out, as in Tables 6 and 7.

 

Tables 6 & 7: Fairbairn Locomotives sent to the Waterford, Limerick & Western Railway.[22]

 

No.

Delivered

Rebuilt

Withdrawn

11

04/1853

1875

   1904

12

05/1853

-

c.1885

17

02/1854

1875-6

   1896

18

02/1854

1875

   1897

19

02/1854

-

   1874

20

04/1854

-

   1892

21

12/1855

At date not known

   1897

 

Technical details

 

Cylinders

15” x 21”

Driving Wheels

5’0” (11 & 12) 5’6” (17-21)diam.

Boiler pressure

95lb/in2

Grate area

14.31ft2

 

                              

Fig.7: No.11, 1853 2-4-0 engine: Waterford, Limerick & Western Railway, in c.1895.[23]

The architectural historian, Sigfried Giedion drew attention in the 1940s to an eight-storey ‘English refinery, c.1845’, in which ‘instead of the brick-arch floor, thin wrought-iron plates are used; running from column to column, they are bent in the segmental form of an arch and then filled to floor level with concrete’.[24] For twenty years I searched for this ‘English refinery’ and by chance came across the reminiscences of a young Manchester architect, Alfred Darbyshire. He recorded having been commissioned to design a sugar refinery warehouse and his clients required an experienced structural engineer. In August 1862 (not 1845) young Darbyshire ‘entered the sanctum of the great man with diffidence and anxiety’. Examining the plans Fairbairn intimated that this was a building in which to introduce wrought-iron beams throughout, in lieu of the usual cast-iron.[25] They were built up from angles riveted to plates. This was probably the first major building in the British Isles with wrought-iron beams throughout – one of the transitional steps between cast iron and the modern steel frame. Its location: Dublin! Unfortunately it did not have  permanently-shuttered concrete floors – Fairbairn’s illustration of them related to ‘a cotton or flax mill’,[26] and no example of them has been found. This fine building is still with us – now refurbished as a craft centre.

                             

 

 

                   

 

Fig.8: Bewley Moss Sugar-refinery Wrehouse, Dublin, 1862.[27] Fig.9: Wrought Iron Beam.[28]

Fairbairn’s final involvement in Ireland was the Atlantic Cable - the great engineering achievement of the 1860s. Following the failure of the 1858 attempt, Government set up a ten-strong Commission, chaired by Douglas Galton, which produced a comprehensive and optimistic Report.[29] One of its members was William Fairbairn.[30] The Commission, needing to know the most effective insulating material for the cable, given the pressures involved, requested Fairbairn to investigate. Various insulators were tested. Dry samples of each were weighed, subjected to pressure in a cylinder of water using Fairbairn’s lever, surface-dried, and re-weighed to determine the amount of water they had absorbed. Measurements were recorded at up to 20,000psi – equivalent to a depth of 8.72 miles – and for up to 450 hours. Raw India-rubber was found to absorb twenty-seven times as much water as Chatterton’s compound. The experiments were repeated at higher temperatures, by means of the cylinder being immersed in heated water. This showed that temperature had a marked effect on the amount of water absorbed. The best results were obtained from Chatterton’s compound and gutta-percha.[31] Fairbairn then attempted a much more complex experiment, to compare the loss of electric charge through different insulators under pressure. This was fraught with difficulties but the results, whilst lacking conclusivity, were sufficient to endorse a system of alternate coats of Chatterton’s compound and gutta-percha.[32] Four layers of each were used in both the 1865 and the successful 1866 cables.[33] The Commission’s Report sets out details of Fairbairn’s experiments.[34]

The Atlantic Telegraph Company set up its own Scientific Committee comprising Douglas Galton, William Fairbairn, Charles Wheatstone, Joseph Whitworth and William Thomson (later Lord Kelvin).[35] When tenders for a new cable were invited, about sixty different samples by Glass Elliot & Co and some by other firms, were delivered to Fairbairns’ Ancoats works where Fairbairn and Whitworth instituted tests to determine the weight, breaking strain, and specific gravity of each cable, together with tests on each component of the cables. Samples of each cable were subjected to loading, with the elongation measured as each increment was added, until the sample broke.[36] Based on these results the Committee recommended cable No.46 of Glass Elliot & Co.[37] However, Glass Elliot could not afford to finance the work including the gutta-percha insulation and, driven by John Pender, merged with the Gutta Percha Company to form the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Co Ltd (‘Telcon’), which entered a contract with Daniel Gooch’s Great Eastern Steamship Co to lay the 1865 cable. The Great Eastern sailed from the Nore to Valencia, where cable-laying was to commence. Fairbairn was on board as far as Valencia.[38] The attempt failed when the cable broke and could not be recovered.[39] The Atlantic Telegraph Company then found that its Act of Parliament would not allow it to raise money as it intended, by way of Preference Shares. Gooch and Pender therefore established a new company, the Anglo-American Telegraph Company, to take over the project. A new cable was obtained, and the Great Eastern left Greenwich on 30 June 1866 on the successful attempt - and the 1865 cable was recovered, a feat which Fairbairn considered ‘one of the most successful triumphs of marine engineering’.[40]

The Engineer said in its obituary of Fairbairn: ‘his footprints may be found on every path which the engineer can tread’.[41] Some of those paths were in Ireland.


[1] W Pole, The Life of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart., (1877), p.317.

[2] ‘Austrian Imperial Railways – Exhibition Catalogue’, (2009), pp.4-5; www.biographiea.ac.at/oebl_2/206.pdf  (accessed 6 October 2010); http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Haswell  (accessed 6 October 2010).

[3] R L Hills, and D Patrick, Beyer Peacock: Locomotive Builders to the World, (1972).

[4] T Vernon, Archibald Sturrock, Pioneer Locomotive Engineer, (2007), p.17.

[5] E L Ahrons, ‘Short Histories of Famous Firms, No.II, W Fairbairn and Sons, Manchester’, The Engineer, 129, Jan.-June 1920, 184.

[6] The original is at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers to whom it was presented by Sir W A Fairbairn, Bt., in 1956.

[7] E Shepherd, The Midland Great Western Railway of Ireland: An Illustrated History, (1994), pp.82, 123.

[8] Shepherd, Midland Great Western Railway, p.123.

[9] Manchester Guardian, 6 April 1850.

[10] The Practical Mechanic’s Journal, 4, 1851-2, Plate 89.

[11] Pole, Life, p.317.

[12] K H Vignoles, Charles Blacker Vignoles, Romantic Engineer, (1982), p.147.

[13] J W Lowe, British Steam Locomotive Builders, (1975), p.176.

[14] Illustrated London News  9 August 1851, 195.

[15] Shepherd, Midland Great Western Railway,  p.82.   

[16] The Practical Mechanic’s Journal Vol.4 [1851-2] pp.271-2.

[17] H Jack, Locomotives of the LNWR Southern Division : London & Birmingham Railway, London & North Western Railway and Wolverton Locomotive Works, (2001),  p.99-100  .

[18] H Fayle and A T Newham, The Waterford & Tramore Railway, (2nd ed. 1972),  pp.22-3.

[19] Fayle and Newham, Waterford & Tramore Railway, pp.44-5.

[20] Ahrons, ‘Short Histories’, p.185.

[21] E Shepherd, The Waterford, Limerick & Western Railway, (2006), pp.13-4.

[22] Shepherd, Waterford, Limerick & Western, pp.150, 152.

[23] C E J Fryer, The Waterford & Limerick Railway, (2000), p.29; see also J W P Rowledge, Irish Steam Locomotive Register, p.59.

[24] S Giedion, Space, Time and Architecture: the growth of a new tradition, (3rd ed. 1953), p.192.

[25] A Darbyshire,  An Architect’s Experiences, (1897), pp.65-8; T A Lockett, Three Lives, (1968), pp.24-45.

[26] W Fairbairn, On the Application of Cast and Wrought Iron to Building Purposes, (2nd ed.1857-8), p.155.

[27] Industrial Development Authority Ireland, Dublin inner city – renewal through enterprise, (nd but c1984), front cover.

[28] Barry & Associates, Drawing 30 May 1983.

[29] ‘Report of the Joint Committee appointed by the Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council for Trade and the Atlantic Telegraph Company to inquire into the Construction of Submarine Telegraph Cables; together with the Minutes of Evidence and Appendix’, Parliamentary Papers, 1860[2744], p.xxxvi.

[30] G Saward, The Trans-Atlantic Submarine Telegraph: A Brief Narrative of the Principal Incidents in the History of the Atlantic Telegraph Company, (1878), pp.44-5. Robert Stephenson died and James Wortley became ill, leaving eight.

[31] W Fairbairn, Useful information for Engineers, Third Series, (1866), pp.250-63. Chatterton’s compound was constituted from three parts gutta-percha, one part rosin and one part Stockholm tar. Gutta-percha is natural latex produced from the sap of a tropical tree, palaquium gutta, native to south-east Asia and northern Australasia.

[32] Fairbairn, Useful Information, Third Series, pp.264-7.

[33] Fairbairn, Useful Information, Third Series, pp.273-4.

[34] ‘Report of the Joint Committee’, pp.xx, 342-9.

[35] Saward, Trans-Atlantic Submarine Telegraph, p.48; Fairbairn, Useful Information, Third Series, p.275.

[36] W Fairbairn, ‘Preliminary Investigation of the Mechanical Properties of the proposed Atlantic Cable’, British Association for the Advancement of Science Report 1864, (1865), pp.408-15; Fairbairn, Useful Information, Third Series, pp.276-289.

[37] ‘Report of the Scientific Committee appointed to consider the best form of Cable for submersion between Europe and America’, (21 October 1863), reproduced in Saward, Trans-Atlantic Submarine Telegraph, pp.50-1; Fairbairn, Useful Information, Third Series, pp.276-89; Mechanic’s Magazine, July-Dec.1864, 204.

[38] W H Russell, The Atlantic Telegraph, (1865), pp.42-3.

[39] W Fairbairn, ‘On Some of the Causes of Failure of Deep Sea Cables’, British Association for the Advancement of Science Report 1865, (1866), pp.178-84; Fairbairn, Useful Information, Third Series, pp.317-25; Civil Engineer and Architect’s Journal, 28, 1865, 298

[40] The Observer, 1 July 1866; Fairbairn, Useful Information, Third Series, pp.324-5.

[41] The Engineer, 38, 1874,154

Copyright © 2018 by Irish Railway Record Society Limited
Revised: May 17, 2018 .

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