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JOURNAL 193

William Fairbairn in Ireland: Part 1 – to circa 1850

RICHARD BYROM 

I have recently written a biography of William Fairbairn (1789-1874)[i], one of the greatest and most versatile engineers of the nineteenth century, and the best-known living engineer in the 1860s. Economics restricted the book to 400+ pages but it really needed several times that number, not least to have written more about Fairbairn’s work in Ireland. To understand Fairbairn, it is essential to be aware of the development of his business: from 1817 to 1832 a partnership with James Lillie, undertaking mainly millwork and waterwheels; from 1832 to 1844 a sole trader (albeit with some partners with very small shares) undertaking mills and millwork, steam engines and shipbuilding, and from 1844 to 1854 a family business, relinquishing shipbuilding but adding bridges. In 1854 Fairbairn retired from the everyday management of the company and became a consulting engineer to the company and to others, but retaining and working from his office at the Ancoats, Manchester works. From 1855 the company was run by Fairbairn’s sons but by 1860 it was in the sole ownership of Thomas who, in 1864, incorporated it into a limited liability company and used some of the money realised to acquire a landed estate in Hampshire. Investment in plant and leadership was neglected and the company went into voluntary liquidation in 1875, the year after William’s death. This means, for example, that William had little, if any, involvement with the numerous locomotives sent to Ireland after the early 1850s. Table 1 sets out the changing structure of the Fairbairn firm, Table 2 shows the areas of work the firm was involved with and Table 3 lists the works in Ireland of which I am aware – I am hoping that readers will be able to extend this list.

                Fig 1: William Fairbairn, CE, FRS, by Benjamin Rawlinson Faulkner, c.1840.[ii]                                                                                                                                                                          

 

                                                 Table 1. Fairbairn Chronology.

 

Dates for

W Fairbairn

Wm Fairbairn

Dates for

Firm

Firm:  Mode of Trading

 

Name of Firm

1789-1804

 

 

 

 

Childhood

   

 

1804-1811

 

 

Apprenticeship

 

 

 

1811-1817

 

Journeyman

 

 

 

1817-1832

 

 

 

 

 

Partner

 

 

 

 

 

 

1817-1832

Partnership

(William Fairbairn, James Lillie)

Fairbairn & Lillie

1832-1841

Sole Principal

1832-1841

Sole Principal

(William Fairbairn)

(1838-43 Andrew Murray and John Hetherington had small shares in the Millwall shipyard)

Wm. Fairbairn

  (until 1846)

1841-1853

Family Business

1841-1853

Partnership(s) – Family Business

(Wm Fairbairn, John Fairbairn from unknown date until 1844;

 

 

 

 

Thomas Fairbairn from 1841;

Wm. A Fairbairn from 1846; George Fairbairn from c.1851)

Wm. Fairbairn & Sons (from 1846)

1854-1874

‘Retired’ but gave ‘active assistance’

1854-1859

Partnership(s) – Family Business (Thomas Fairbairn; George Fairbairn until 1856; Peter Fairbairn until1859; Wm. Andrew Fairbairn until 1859).

 

 

 

1859-1864

Sole Principal

(Thomas Fairbairn)

Fairbairn  & Company

 

Director  until 1872 but then ‘retained interest in the establishment’.

1864-1875

Limited Liability Company.

(Directors: Thomas Fairbairn, chairman; Augustus Novelli; James McConnell; John Pender; Wm Fairbairn until 1872 .

The Fairbairn Engineering Company Limited

 1874 >

Deceased

 

 

 

 

 

1875-1899

In voluntary liquidation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finally wound up in 1899.

 

 

                                    Table 2.Timescales of the main Fairbairn Spheres of Activity.                                                                         

 

1817-1819         

1820-1824

1825-1829

1830-1834

1835-1839

1840-1844

1845-1849

1850-1854

1855-1859

1860-1864

1865-1869

1870-1875

Mills and Millwork

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research/investigations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Waterwheels

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steam Engines/boilers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cast-iron bridges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron steamships at M/cr

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron s/ships at Millwall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Locomotives

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tubular and t/g bridges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tubular cranes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lattice/trussed bridges

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W/I Roof Structures

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The intensity of activity is represented by the density of the shading.                                  

Table 3, Part 1: Fairbairn’s Work in Ireland up to c.1850

Date

 

WF

Age

Client & Location

Work

Existing

 

Main References

1813

 

24

Phoenix Foundry,

Dublin.

Nail Making Machine.

No

W Pole, Life of Sir William Fairbairn, Bart., (1877),

pp100-1.

1823

 

34

Earl of Caledon,

Corn Mill,

Caledon .

Two Waterwheels

(evidence not conclusive)

No, but bridge on tailrace remains.

W A McCutcheon, ‘Water Power in the North of Ireland’, Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 39, 1966-7, 93; M Lake, Caledon Conservation Area (2003).

1826-30

 

37+

Malcolmsons

Cotton Mill.

Portlaw.

Two Waterwheels and Machinery.

(probably shafting)

No, but parts of building remain.

T Hunt, Portlaw, County Waterford 1825-1876. Portrait of an Industrial Village and its Cotton Industry, (2000), pp.46-8; A Bielenberg and J M Hearne, ‘Malcolmsons of Portlaw and Clonmel: some new evidence on the Irish cotton industry 1825-50’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy,  106C, 2006, 342, 346-7.

1833

 

44

Samuel Law,

Flax Mill,

Hazelbank,

Banbridge.

Waterwheel.

No, but weir and leat remain with turbine for h/e.

E R R Green, Industrial Archaeology of County Down, (1963), pp.7, 19; H D Gribbon, The History of Water Power in Ulster, (1969), p.21;

J Smyth, ‘On the Industrial Uses of the Upper Bann River’, BAAS Report, Belfast, 1874, pp.131

c.1834

 

 

F W Hayes,

Flax Mill,

Seapatrick,

Banbridge.

Waterwheel.

No

Green, Industrial Archaeology, pp.7, 18.

1835

46

William Chaine,

Flax Mill,

Moylinney.

Waterwheel.

(only possibly by Fairbairn)

No

H D Gribbon, The History of Water Power in Ulster, (1969), p.22.

Pre

1836

 

 

Milford Flour Mills,

Carlow.

 Mill, waterwheel, millwork and machinery.

Weir remains, + turbine for h/e; & parts of building.

S C Hall and Mrs S C Hall, Ireland: Its Scenery, Character, &c. (1841), Vol.1p.405; The Carlow Sentinel, 8 October 1836.

Pre 1835 ?

 

Earl of Caledon,

Corn Mill,

Caledon.

Caledon Mill.

Steam Engine

[only possibly by Fairbairn]

Yes, but derelict.

W A McCutcheon, ‘The Stationary Steam Engine in Ulster’ in Danachair, C Ó, (ed.), Folk & Farm: essays in honour of A T Lucas, (Dublin, Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 1976), offprint pp.8-12; M Lake, Caledon Conservation Area (2003).

1836

 

47

Millowners on the River Bann,

Banbridge.

Report on Water Power on the R. Bann

-

W Fairbairn, Reservoirs on the River Bann, in the County of Down, Ireland, for more effectually supplying the mills with Water, (1836).

1835-39

 

46+

Herdmans Mill,

Sion Mills.

Two waterwheels.

No, but weir and leat remain with turbine for h/e.

Letter: Herdmans to Major Humphries 31 June 1835, held by Mrs C Ferguson, Sion Mills; Sion Mills Buildings Preservation trust at:

http://www.sionmills.org/Default.aspx?tabid=126.

1837

 

48

Flax and Tow Spinning Mill,

Unknown Location,

North of Ireland 

Mill and Millwork. Possibly waterwheel.

?

Manchester Guardian, 7 March 1846.

1837-9

 

48+

Reservoir

(River Bann Scheme)

Lough Island Reavy.

(design by J F Bateman; construction by W Dargan).

Yes

J F Bateman, ‘Description of the Bann Reservoirs, County Down, Ireland’, Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1. 1841, 168-70; J Smyth, Short Historical Sketch of the Construction and Works of the Lough Island Reavy, Co. Down ... (reprinted from the Transactions of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland, (1871); F Mulligan, William Dargan: An Honourable Life 1799-1867, (2013), p.237.

1840’s

 

 

Reservoir ,

(River Bann Scheme),

Corbet Lough.

 (design by J F Bateman: probably constructed  by

W Dargan).

Yes

The Civil Engineer and Architect’s Journal, 11, 1848, 185-6.

1843

 

54

Dublin.

For Loch Derg.

Iron steamship 

Lady Burgoyne.

Possibly, in mud of Loch Derg.

The Practical Mechanic and Engineer’s Magazine, 4, 1845, 273-7; The Civil Engineer and Architect’s Journal,  8,1845, 353; E-mail from glen@marina.ie 12 May 2011 quoting conversation with Dan Minchin.

1843

54

J & R Mallet,

Dublin.

Waterwheel

No

Manchester Times and Gazette, 22 October 1841.

1844

 

55

Kingston & Dalkey Atmospheric  Rly,

Dalkey.

Steam engine to drive vacuum pump.

No

C Hadfield, Atmospheric Railways: A Victorian Venture in Silent Speed, (1967), pp.41, 108, Plate IV.

1846

 

57

Flax and Tow Spinning Mill,

Unknown Location,

North of Ireland 

35hp steam engine.

?

Manchester Guardian, 7 March 1846. See above under 1837.

1846-47

 

57+

Midland Great Western Railway, Dublin

Twelve  2-2-2 locomotives

No

E L Ahrons, Locomotive and Train Working in the Latter Part of the Nineteenth Century, Volume 6, (1954), p.50; W E Shepherd, The Midland Great Western Railway of Ireland: An Illustrated History, (1994), pp.82, 123.

c.1850

 

 

Cahir.

Tubular-girder  viaduct over River Suir

Yes, but altered.

The Engineer, 1, 1856, 336; J Scoffern et al, The Useful Metals and their Alloys ... , (1869), pp.456-63; R C Cox and M H Gould, Civil Engineering Heritage: Ireland, (1998), pp.263-4.

c.1850

 

 

Galway.

Tubular-girder Swing Bridge over Lough Atalia.

No, but piers remain.

W Humber, Cast and Wrought Iron Bridges and Girders, (1857), pp.43-9 +Plates 27, 28, 29.

c.1850

 

 

Ballinasloe.

Tubular- girder Bridge over R. Suck.

Yes

N V Torpey, Journal of the Irish Railway Record Society, 22.154, 2004,p.128.

1850

 

61

Drogheda.

Unsuccessful proposal for a tubular-girder  Bridge over River Boyne

-

C O’Mahony, ‘Iron Rails and Harbour Walls: James Barton of Farndreg’, Journal of the County Louth Archaeological and Historical Society, 22.2, 1990, 134-6; Belfast Newsletter, 6 September 1852.

 

William Fairbairn was a Scot from a very modest background. For him there was no grammar school or premium pupillage. He did however obtain a seven-year apprenticeship as a millwright at Percy Main Colliery near Newcastle. After that he worked as a journeyman millwright for seven years, including a job at the Phoenix Foundry, Dublin, for four months. His final 16 months as a millwright were with Thomas Hewes in Manchester, initially erecting waterwheels in Macclesfield and then in Hewes’ drawing office. In November 1817 he started out in business on his own, soon joined by James Lillie. There is some evidence that their first job in Ireland may have been waterwheels at Caledon Corn Mill in 1823 but how they came to be involved remains unclear. They were involved with Malcolmsons’ Cotton Mill at Portlaw in the late 1820s. The contact here was almost certainly through Fairbairn & Lillie’s Quaker clients, Henry and Edmund Ashworth of Bolton:[iii] James Cropper, a successful Quaker merchant from Liverpool, was much concerned about poverty in Ireland. He proposed the building of cotton mills but the only outcome was the Portlaw factory.[iv] It was a six-storey mill, driven by two waterwheels on the Clodagh. Fairbairn & Lillie had involvement with the waterwheels and shafting.

In the 1830s there were waterwheels at Hazelbank and Seapatrick on the Bann, at Sion Mills on the Mourne, and a major water-driven flour and oatmeal mill on the Barrow at Milford Mills, Carlow, with twenty-two pairs of millstones. The Carlow Sentinel described the latter in 1836 as ‘unrivalled’[v], and in 1840 Mr and Mrs Hall’s Ireland stated that the establishment ‘is one of the most extensive and celebrated in Ireland … [it was] constructed under the superintendence of Mr William Fairbairn of Manchester; and the chief water-wheel made by him, of iron.’[vi]

 

 

                                            Fig.2: Milford Mills, Carlow.[vii]


The Bann mill-owners were concerned about the inadequate flow in the river in summer and Fairbairn was commissioned to prepare a report. Working with his future son-in-law, J F Bateman who became a famous water-supply engineer, he produced a report which recommended the construction of Lough Island Reavy and Corbet reservoirs. These were subsequently constructed under Bateman’s direction with William Dargan as contractor.[viii]

Dargan was also the earthworks and masonry contractor for the Kingstown and Dalkey atmospheric railway in the early 1840s, for which Fairbairn supplied the steam-engine to power the air-pump which drove the railway. Situated at Dalkey, it had a huge 36ft diameter flywheel and was served by three Cornish boilers.[ix] Nevertheless Fairbairn and Dargan appear not to have met on these occasions. However they did meet. In 1857 Dargan stayed with Fairbairn in Manchester, probably for the Art Treasures Exhibition, and Fairbairn took him to see Saltaire, his largest work of mill construction, and to meet Titus Salt. There Dargan referred to their first meeting, in connection with a bridge, most probably that over the Suir at Cahir.[x] Other work with which Fairbairn and Dargan were both subsequently involved included the tubular-girder bridge at Ballinasloe, the tubular girder swing bridge over Lough Atalia at Galway (which never opened again after its initial test opening), a tubular-girder bridge over the river Dodder at Dublin, locomotives for the Waterford & Tramore Railway, the Dublin & Wicklow Railway and the Limerick & Ennis Railway. There were also two steam-engines and millwork for Dargan’s flax and thread mill at Chapelizod, Dublin, and a waterwheel at Belleek Pottery.[xi] Dargan financed the Dublin Exhibition of 1853 at which Fairbairn provided the steam-engine to operate the exhibited machinery, exhibited a 5-ton Fairbairn crane, and prepared a report on the exhibition building, recommending modifications to the trellis girders of the galleries. It is clear that Dargan and Fairbairn had a great respect for each other: Fairbairn writes of ‘my friend Mr William Dargan, the friend of Ireland and the promoter of Irish industry’.[xii] Ill-health prevented Fairbairn attending Dargan’s funeral in 1867 but he wrote to Jane Dargan, ‘I shall cherish his memory … a man of strict honesty of purpose and a true patriot in his country’.[xiii]

During the critical decade in iron shipbuilding, 1835-44, Fairbairn was the leading builder of iron steamships. He built around 120 iron ships of which only seventy-five have been identified to date, and only one built for Ireland, the Lady Burgoyne, built for C W Williams in 1843 to ply on Loch Derg.[xiv] She was described as a ‘passage boat’ and was the second or third iron steamship on the Loch, the first being Laird’s Lady Landsdowne of 1833-4. In 1865 the passenger vessels were reported as being moored at Killaloe ‘in a wretched state’. A photograph from about 1900 shows a ship on the Tipperary side opposite the Pier Head. In 1957, when only her stem projected from the water, she was examined and believed to be the Lady Landsdowne but the evidence was inconclusive.[xv] There was another survey in the early 1970 when various artefacts were recovered, now displayed in Liverpool Maritime Museum.[xvi] However there remains the possibility that this ship is in fact the Lady Burgoyne – the dimensions alone are inconclusive – and there is also a suggestion that other boats lie submerged in the Killaloe mud: ‘one of the names mentioned was the Lady Burgoyne.’[xvii]

                           Table 4: Lady Burgoyne – Technical Details[xviii]

The ship

 

 

The engines

 

Tonnage

Not known

 

Type

Oscillating

Length on deck

       130’0”

 

No.

2

Length betw’n perps.

       126’0”

 

Power

46hp each

Beam

         17’6”

 

Cylinders

39”

Depth of hold

           9’6”

 

Length of stroke

3’0”

Draught

           4’9”

 

Strokes per min.

32

 

 

 

Crank shaft necks

71/2”diam.x10”

 

 

 

Pin

4”diam.x41/8

 

 

 

Piston-rod

41/8”diam.

 

 

 

Paddle-wheels

16’0”diam.

 

 

 

Paddle boards

8’0”x1’4”

             

Fairbairn’s most famous research was in connection with the Britannia tubular bridge on the Chester & Holyhead Railway – the main route to Ireland from 1851. A derivative of the tubular bridge experiments was the tubular-girder bridge, patented in 1846.[xix] This comprised a wrought-iron tubular girder on each side of the bridge with the bridge deck spanning between them. They filled a short window of opportunity between the discrediting of the trussed cast-iron girder following the collapse of Stephenson’s Dee Bridge and the development of trellis- and Warren-girder bridges.

 

 

 

                                        Fig.3: Tubular-girder Bridge, Cahir.[xx]

The tubular-girder Cahir Bridge, with a main span of 150ft, is a skew bridge built for the Waterford & Limerick Railway. The girders are 11ft 6in by 2ft 6in[xxi] and the bridge still exists, although much repaired and strengthened.[xxii] The Lough Atalia Bridge is of interest, not least because William Humber’s book includes details of the mechanism of the tubular-girder double-swing-bridge section, manually operated by two men. There were four spans, two of 40ft and two of 60ft, the latter together spanned by parabolic tubular-girders 157ft long, 6ft deep at their centres and 3ft-3in at the extremities.[xxiii]

James Barton was one of a new generation of Irish engineers influenced by engineers on the Continent. He was appointed engineer, under John Macneill, for a bridge to span the Boyne at Drogheda. Macneill, under whose direction the first wrought-iron lattice girder bridges had been built at Raheny and Dublin, proposed a three-span lattice bridge but problems with his earlier bridges were causing second thoughts. The matter was resolved when they met C H Wild who had a plan of ‘Warren’s patent girder’, marked up with the ‘strains and compressions’ that the different parts of the girder were subjected to by a given load.[xxiv] With Wild’s help, Barton modified the design for Drogheda. He then constructed and tested 60ft lattice and tubular girders, finding the lattice advantageous.[xxv] At the British Association meeting in Belfast in 1852, Barton read a paper referring to his tests.[xxvi] Fairbairn was present and came out of the discussion rather badly.[xxvii] Barton’s bridge was built and is believed to have been the first iron bridge designed in accordance with stress calculations. [xxviii]

Another derivative of the tubular girder was the Fairbairn crane, patented in 1850, one of which, a 60ton crane, was the strongest crane of its day. Fairbairns may possibly have built as many as 300 cranes, of which only thirty have been identified, plus numerous ‘Fairbairn’ cranes by other manufacturers. However as yet none have been identified in Ireland apart from that exhibited at the Dublin Exhibition.[xxix] However William Anderson, who had served a premium apprenticeship with Fairbairn, moved to Courtney Stephens in Dublin and designed a ‘Fairbairn’ crane with lattice jib and base,[xxx] but B B Stoney in his Theory of Structures (1869) points out that ‘the lattice web is not well suited for bent cranes exceeding 10tons’.[xxxi]

Fairbairn’s locomotives, the Dublin Exhibition, Bewley Moss Refinery and Atlantic Cable form Part 2 of this paper

[i] William Fairbairn, the Experimental Engineer. A Study in Mid-nineteenth Century Engineering, (to be published 2017 by the Railway & Canal Historical Society).

[ii] Bequeathed to The Royal Society, London, in Fairbairn’s will.

[iii] R Boyson, The Ashworth Cotton Enterprise: The Rise and Fall of a Family Firm 1818-1880, (1970).

[iv] T Hunt, Portlaw, County Waterford 1825-1876. Portrait of an Industrial Village and its Cotton Industry, (2000), pp.46-8; A Bielenberg and J M Hearne, ‘Malcolmsons of Portlaw and Clonmel: some new evidence on the Irish cotton industry 1825-50’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 106C, 2006, 342, 346-7.

[v] The Carlow Sentinel, 8 October 1836.

[vi] S C Hall and A M Hall, Ireland: Its Scenery, Character, &c. (1841), p.405.

[vii] Hall, Ireland, p.405. Reproduced in W Ellis, ‘Milford Mills’ in Carloviana: Journal of the Old Carlow Society, 1962, 12.

[viii] W Fairbairn and J F Bateman, Reservoirs on the River Bann, in the County of Down, Ireland, for more effectually supplying the mills with water, (1836); J F Bateman, ‘Description of the Bann Reservoirs, County Down, Ireland’, MPICE, 1, 1841, 168-70;  F Mulligan, William Dargan: An Honourable Life 1799-1867, (2013), p.57.

[ix] C Hadfield, Atmospheric Railways: A Victorian Venture in Silent Speed, (1967), pp.41, 108. 

[x] R Balgarnie, Sir Titus Salt, Baronet: His Life and its Lessons, (1877), p.152.

[xi] See Table above for references.

[xii] W Fairbairn, On the Application of Cast and Wrought Iron to Building Purposes, (2nd ed. 1857-8), p.119.

[xiii] F Mulligan, William Dargan: An Honourable Life 1799-1867, (2013), p.202.

[xiv] The Practical Mechanic and Engineer’s Magazine, 4, 1845, 243ff.

[xvi] Liverpool Echo, 3 April 1973.

[xvii] E-mail from glen@marina.ie quoting conversation with Dan Minchin

[xviii] The Civil Engineer and Architect’s Journal, 1845, 353; The Practical Mechanic and Engineer’s Magazine, 4, 1845, 243ff.

[xix] Patent No. 11,401.

[xx] W Fairbairn, ‘On the Application of Cast and Wrought Iron to Railways, Bridges, & Co’, in J Scoffern et al, The Useful Metals and their Alloys, (1869), pp.456-7. There is a similar illustration in The Engineer, 1, Jan-June 1856, p.336.

[xxi] Fairbairn, ‘Application of … Iron’, pp.457-64.

[xxii] P McCarron and A McAdam, ‘Preserving Ireland’s iconic railway viaducts’, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Bridge Engineering Paper 1300020 (accepted 04.06.2014), pp.1-6. See also C E J Fryer, The Waterford & Limerick Railway, (2000), pp.158-9.

[xxiii] W Humber, Cast and Wrought Iron Bridges and Girders, (1857), pp.43-9 +Plates 27, 28, 29.

[xxiv] J G James, ‘The Origins and Worldwide Spread of Warren-Truss Bridges in the mid-Nineteenth Century. Part 1.Origins and Early Examples in the UK’, in N Smith (ed.), History of Technology, 11, 1986, 96, quoting J Macneill, The Boyne Bridge, (1860).

[xxv] C O’Mahony, ‘Iron Rails and Harbour Walls: James Barton of Farndreg’, Journal of the County Louth Archaeological and Historical Society, 22.2, 1990, 134-6; J Barton, ‘On the Economic Distribution of Material in the Sides or Vertical Portion of Wrought Iron Beams’, Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 14, 1855, 451-2.

[xxvi] J Barton,  ‘On the Calculations of Strains in Lattice Girders with practical deductions therefrom’, British Association for the Advancement of Science Report 1852, (1853), p.123.

[xxvii] Belfast Newsletter, 6 September 1852.

[xxviii] O’Mahony, ‘Iron Rails and Harbour Walls’, 139. D J Jourawski had done stress calculations for a timber bridge in 1844 (S P Timoshenko, History of Strength of Materials, (1953), pp.142-3).

[xxix] J Sproule (ed.), The Irish Industrial Exhibition of 1853: A Detailled Catalogue of its Contents, (1854), p.178.

[xxx] W Anderson, ‘Description of a Six-ton Crane, with Curved, Diagonally braced Jib, at the Pigeon-house Fort, Dublin’, Transactions of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland, 6, 1863, 188-92 and Plate I.

[xxxi] B B Stoney, The Theory of Strains in Girders and Similar Structures, with Observations on the Application of Theory to Practice and Tables of the Strength and other Properties of Materials , (1869),  pp.129-36.

 

 

[1] William Fairbairn, the Experimental Engineer. A Study in Mid-nineteenth Century Engineering, (to be published 2017 by the Railway & Canal Historical Society).

[1] Bequeathed to The Royal Society, London, in Fairbairn’s will.

[1] R Boyson, The Ashworth Cotton Enterprise: The Rise and Fall of a Family Firm 1818-1880, (1970).

[1] T Hunt, Portlaw, County Waterford 1825-1876. Portrait of an Industrial Village and its Cotton Industry, (2000), pp.46-8; A Bielenberg and J M Hearne, ‘Malcolmsons of Portlaw and Clonmel: some new evidence on the Irish cotton industry 1825-50’, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 106C, 2006, 342, 346-7.

[1] The Carlow Sentinel, 8 October 1836.

[1] S C Hall and A M Hall, Ireland: Its Scenery, Character, &c. (1841), p.405.

[1] Hall, Ireland, p.405. Reproduced in W Ellis, ‘Milford Mills’ in Carloviana: Journal of the Old Carlow Society, 1962, 12.

[1] W Fairbairn and J F Bateman, Reservoirs on the River Bann, in the County of Down, Ireland, for more effectually supplying the mills with water, (1836); J F Bateman, ‘Description of the Bann Reservoirs, County Down, Ireland’, MPICE, 1, 1841, 168-70;  F Mulligan, William Dargan: An Honourable Life 1799-1867, (2013), p.57.

[1] C Hadfield, Atmospheric Railways: A Victorian Venture in Silent Speed, (1967), pp.41, 108. 

[1] R Balgarnie, Sir Titus Salt, Baronet: His Life and its Lessons, (1877), p.152.

[1] See Table above for references.

[1] W Fairbairn, On the Application of Cast and Wrought Iron to Building Purposes, (2nd ed. 1857-8), p.119.

[1] F Mulligan, William Dargan: An Honourable Life 1799-1867, (2013), p.202.

[1] The Practical Mechanic and Engineer’s Magazine, 4, 1845, 243ff.

[1] http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:rBi7WWwMkM8J:www.mar... (accessed 14.04.11).

[1] Liverpool Echo, 3 April 1973.

[1] E-mail from glen@marina.ie quoting conversation with Dan Minchin

[1] The Civil Engineer and Architect’s Journal, 1845, 353; The Practical Mechanic and Engineer’s Magazine, 4, 1845, 243ff.

[1] Patent No. 11,401.

[1] W Fairbairn, ‘On the Application of Cast and Wrought Iron to Railways, Bridges, & Co’, in J Scoffern et al, The Useful Metals and their Alloys, (1869), pp.456-7. There is a similar illustration in The Engineer, 1, Jan-June 1856, p.336.

[1] Fairbairn, ‘Application of … Iron’, pp.457-64.

[1] P McCarron and A McAdam, ‘Preserving Ireland’s iconic railway viaducts’, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Bridge Engineering Paper 1300020 (accepted 04.06.2014), pp.1-6. See also C E J Fryer, The Waterford & Limerick Railway, (2000), pp.158-9.

[1] W Humber, Cast and Wrought Iron Bridges and Girders, (1857), pp.43-9 +Plates 27, 28, 29.

[1] J G James, ‘The Origins and Worldwide Spread of Warren-Truss Bridges in the mid-Nineteenth Century. Part 1.Origins and Early Examples in the UK’, in N Smith (ed.), History of Technology, 11, 1986, 96, quoting J Macneill, The Boyne Bridge, (1860).

[1] C O’Mahony, ‘Iron Rails and Harbour Walls: James Barton of Farndreg’, Journal of the County Louth Archaeological and Historical Society, 22.2, 1990, 134-6; J Barton, ‘On the Economic Distribution of Material in the Sides or Vertical Portion of Wrought Iron Beams’, Minutes of Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 14, 1855, 451-2.

[1] J Barton,  ‘On the Calculations of Strains in Lattice Girders with practical deductions therefrom’, British Association for the Advancement of Science Report 1852, (1853), p.123.

[1] Belfast Newsletter, 6 September 1852.

[1] O’Mahony, ‘Iron Rails and Harbour Walls’, 139. D J Jourawski had done stress calculations for a timber bridge in 1844 (S P Timoshenko, History of Strength of Materials, (1953), pp.142-3).

[1] J Sproule (ed.), The Irish Industrial Exhibition of 1853: A Detailled Catalogue of its Contents, (1854), p.178.

[1] W Anderson, ‘Description of a Six-ton Crane, with Curved, Diagonally braced Jib, at the Pigeon-house Fort, Dublin’, Transactions of the Institution of Civil Engineers of Ireland, 6, 1863, 188-92 and Plate I.

[1] B B Stoney, The Theory of Strains in Girders and Similar Structures, with Observations on the Application of Theory to Practice and Tables of the Strength and other Properties of Materials , (1869),  pp.129-36.

 

 

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